Chronology


2,6 mill. - 10.000 B.C.

PALEOLITHIC ERA

200.000-35.000 B.C.

Middle Paleolithic. First appearance of stone tools in Evros (Rizia) and Rhodopi (Makropotamo area)

35.000-10.000 B.C.

Late Paleolithic. No finds located as yet in Thrace.

10.000-7.000 B.C.

Mesolithic. Because of the absence of finds in Thrace it is not possible (for the time being) to link the early human presence with the systematic settlement of the neolithic era. Finds from these periods exist in several parts of Greece and the Balkans. A rise in the sea level joins the Aegean with the Sea of Marmara, creating the Dardanelles. The Propontis (Sea of Marmara) is transformed from a lake into a sea. Dramatic change in the ecosystem (8th millennium). Union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean via the Sea of Marmara. Bosphoros strait created (8.000-7.000 B.C.)

7.000-3.200 B.C.

NEOLITHIC ERA

7.000-5.800 B.C.

Early Neolithic No settlements from this period have as yet been found in the Aegean section of Thrace, in contrast with other parts of Thrace and eastern Macedonia. Theories on the possible reasons for this absence include the rise in sea level, silting up of the rivers and extreme erosion of the mountains, which would have affected both coastal and inland habitations, respectively.

5.800-5.300 B.C.

Middle Neolithic. No settlements from this period have as yet been found in the Aegean section of Thrace, in contrast with other parts of Thrace and eastern Macedonia. Theories on the possible reasons for this absence include the rise in sea level, silting up of the rivers and extreme erosion of the mountains, which would have affected both coastal and inland habitations, respectively.

5.300-4.600 B.C.

Late Neolithic. First neolithic settlements identified. Development of the so-called Papademe civilization, whose cultural ties were initially closest with eastern and northern Thrace; subsequently they were directly influenced by the neolithic civilizations of eastern Macedonia.

4.600-3.200 B.C.

Chalcolithic. Continued strong cultural influences from eastern Macedonia. Around the end of the 5th millennium the settlements were abandoned. Minimal finds from the 4th millenniun, at the end of which the settlement of Mikro Vouni was founded in Samothrace.

3.200.-1.050 B.C.

BRONZE AGE

3.200-1.800 B.C.

Early Bronze Age. The precise beginning of this period in the interior appears to have reached an advanced stage by around 2.600 B.C., as elsewhere in Greece. It probably arrived in Samothrace earlier. Aegean Thrace is included in a broader cultural context which covers all the Balkans and a large part of Greece. Representative settlements: Papademe, Mikro Vouni, Samothrace.

1.800-1.600 B.C.

Middle Bronze Age. Unknown in the interior and in eastern Macedonia. Represented only by Samothrace (Mikro Vouni), where there are indications of contact with other Aegean islands.

1.600-1.050 B.C.

Late Bronze Age. Period of intense settlement, mainly in the mountains in the interior, thanks to economic factors (flourishing cultivation of the olive and vine). Special cultural ties developed with eastern Macedonia. However no trace of any Mycenaean presence has been found (either pottery or habitations), as in neighbouring eastern Macedonia and Troad. For the first time in this period there are references to myths and the events mentioned in Homer’s epics.

1.050-7th c. B.C.

IRON AGE. Ca. 1.050 (or 1.100 B.C. according to other estimates) Amphoras with hornlike protuberances and grooves as decoration appear over a wide area stretching from south of the Aimos (Balkan) mountain range up to Troad. These amphoras bear the traits of the Babadag culture and are very widespread in Dovroutsa (NE Bulgaria). Their presence is connected with the descent and settlement of Thracian tribes in the whole area. Strengthening of acropolises and creation of power centres occur in Aegean Thrace, while cultural contacts develop with all neighbouring regions and Aegean islands. Dolmens are typical of this civilization.

7th-6th c. B.C.

The rich resources of Thrace (metals, timber, grain, slaves) attract the attention of the Greeks, who gradually establish a chain of colonies on the islands and also along the coast of the northern Aegean (Samothrace, Thasos, Abdera, Maroneia, Ainos, Kardia, Sestos), in the Propontis (Byzantium, Selymbria, Perinthos, Bisanthe) and on the west coast of the Black Sea (Apollonia, Odessos, Tomis, Mesembria). The Greek colonies develop vigorous economic ties with the Thracians, which brings about the progressive infiltration of Greek political, social and cultural institutions to the heart of Thracian society.

ca. 700 B.C.

Colonization of Samothrace

ca. 650 B.C.

First colony founded at Abdera by the Klazomenians. Creation of the «Peraia of Samothrace» on the coast of the Thracian Kikones. Thasians found a colony at Stryme. Chiots found Maroneia. Conflict between Thasos and Maroneia for control of Stryme.

544 B.C.

Second colony at Abdera founded by people from Teos

ca. 530 B.C.

First coins minted at Abdera

ca. 520

First coins minted at Maroneia

512 B.C.

Darius fortifies Doriskos and establishes a Persian guard there

480 B.C.

Xerxes’ army crosses Thrace

478 B.C.

The Athenians liberate the Aegean coast of Thrace from the Persian guards

ca. 465-340 B.C.

With the dynamic growth of Athenian leadership in the north Aegean, Propontis and Black Sea, Greek influence in Thrace comes to a peak. During this period, in the SE of inland Thrace, the first united Thracian state is formed headed by the Odrysian tribe. Its structure and organization bear obvious elements borrowed from Greek political and social institutions.

431-424 B.C.

Under King Sitalces the Kingdom of the Odrysoi emerges as a considerable power and repeatedly plays a major role in the political rivalries of the time, resulting in the strengthening of rewarding relationships and exchanges, especially in the economic and political sectors, with the Greek city-states on the coast of Thrace.

376/75 B.C.

The Triballoi attack Abdera

ca. 340 B.C.

After the death of the Odrysai King Kotys, the resurgence of old internal rivalries leads to the partition of the kingdom.
With a succession of campaigns, King Philip II of Macedonia extends his authority over the whole of Thrace. The new political reality is sealed by the second wave of Greek colonization of Thrace, with the founding of Macedonian colonies, this time in the Thracian hinterland (Philippi, Philippoupolis, Veroe).
The Macedonian domination of Thrace is consolidated by Alexander the Great and continued under his heir, Lysimachos.

281 B.C.

Macedonian rule in Thrace overthrown after the assassination of Lysimachos by the Gauls, who establish their kingdom in the old heartland of the Odrysian kingdom.

ca. 187-179 B.C.

After a period of bitter rivalry between the great powers of the era -- the Ptolemies of Egypt, the Seleucids of Syria and the Attalids of Pergamon -- Thrace is once again subjugated to Macedonian rule by Philip V.

168 A.D.

Abolition of the Macedonian kingdom. Roman domination begins. Abdera, Maroneia and Ainos declared free cities

167 B.C.

Treaty of alliance between Romans and Maronitans

2th c. B.C.-4th c. A.D.

During the Roman period, Thrace enters the final phase of its Hellenization, as a subject kingdom of Rome initially and later as a province of the Roman Empire.
The absence of Roman installations -- with a few exceptions -- in the area south of Mount Haimos and, conversely, the creation and development -- for primarily military purposes -- of an excellent network of overland communications (such as the construction of the Via Egnatia), the free movement and settlement in the area of Greeks, particularly from Asia Minor, but mainly the Roman emperors’ promotion of Greek urban centres and urbanization in general as a means of keeping order further the cultural and linguistic Hellenization of the interior of Thrace among all the social classe

148 B.C.

Founding of the Roman province of Macedonia. Construction of the Via Egnatia up to the Hebros (Evros) and Kypsela

46 A.D.

Founding of the Roman province of Thrace

1th-2th c. A.D.

New cities founded in Aegean Thrace by the Roman emperors: Topeiros, Trajanopolis, Plotinopolis

4th c.

The reorganization of the provincial administration begun with the emperor Diocletian and completed in the 4th c. brings about the partition of the ancient province of Thrace into four smaller units: 1. The Province of Thrace with its capital at Philippoupolis (between the Aimos and Rhodopi mountains and with the upper Evros valley as its nucleus); 2. The Province of Rhodopi with its capital at Trajanopolis (from the S slopes of the Rhodopi mountains as far as the Aegean and from the Nestos to the Evros rivers); 3. The Province of Europe with its capital at Herakleia (the hinterland of the newly designated capital of Constantinople); 4. The Province of Aimimonto, with its capital at Adrianoupolis (between the provinces of Thrace and Europe). These new provinces, along with those of Mysia and Skythia, formed the only European territories under the administration of the Eastern Roman Empire.

361, Nov.

The emperor Julian improves the fortifications around cities and elsewhere.

364

In the spring of this year the emperors Valens and Valentinian visit the most important cities in Thrace and in June partition the Byzantine empire. The eastern provinces, including those in Thrace, fall under the authority of Valentinian.

382, 3 Oct.

Theodosius signs a major peace treaty with the Goths, by which the northern portion of the Administration of Thrace is ceded to the Visigoths under the condition that they supply weapons and men to the Byzantine emperor in lieu of taxes. The military machine is thus inundated with Germanic soldiers and officers.

391

The treaty of 382 between the Goths and Byzantines is automatically abrogated in the summer or autumn of 391 when the Visigoth Alaric brings various barbarian tribes south via the Aimos mountains.

394/5

The Huns ravageThrace.

447

In the first half of the 5th c. Thrace is under constant threat from the Huns, who carry out a devastating attack ca. 443, when they pillage the most important cities in the Thracian peninsula. Added to the catastrophes resulting from earlier Hun invasions, the disasters accompanying a powerful earthquake, plague and famine prepare the ground for a new invasion by Attila, the leader of the Huns, in the area.

448

A new peace treaty between the Byzantines and Goths with particularly favourable terms for the latter relieves Thrace from their crushing presence for a few decades. In the last quarter of the 5th c., Thrace continues to be an arena for Gothic raids and plunder.

493

Bulgars invade the administrative area of Thrace, after the Goths withdraw to Italy.

498

A large number of Isaurians, yet another foreign and dangerous tribe in the heart of Byzantium, spreads into a good part of Thrace; their uprising having been suppressed, a new city is founded for them, most probably Anastasioupolis.

491-505

A Byzantine taxation law in force between 491 and 505 does not affect Thrace because the number of farmers has declined sharply owing to barbarian raids and grain supplies for the imperial armies are insufficient.

Late 5th-6th c.

Around the end of the 5th c. the first Slavic tribes begin to invade Thrace; they are mentioned in the original sources as «Sklaveni and Antae». In 549/550 three thousand Sklaveni enter Thrace, devastating large sections of it and occupying Topeiros.

First half of 6th c.

The emperor Justinian decides to rebuild the walls of many Thracian cities and to erect new fortresses for the better protection of the region from foreign attack. The fortifications at Trajanoupolis, Maximianoupolis and Plotinoupolis are improved at this time, while Anastasioupolis acquires a fortified harbour and the walls of Topeiros are raised.

558/9

Raids by Bulgarian tribes, the Koutrigours and Onogoundours and later the Avars. Extensive damage to the cities.

680/1

Konstantinos Porphyrogennitos founds the Theme of Thrace, for the purpose of combatting Bulgar attacks.

687-9

In 687/8 cavalry troops are transferred from Asia Minor to Thrace to take prisoners among the Bulgars and Slavs. In 688/9 a massive campaign is conducted mainly against the Slavs, and prisoners are dispatched to Asia Minor to serve in the army.

741-775

Period of victorious wars against the Bulgars and Arabs. Systematic transferral of residents of Asia Minor to Thrace to boost the population.

8th/9th c.

Founding of the Theme of Macedonia (with Adrianoupolis as capital), for the purpose of combatting the Bulgars and Slavs. The Theme of Thrace (whose capital is Arkadioupolis) is consequently reduced.

9th c.

The region of Thrace is divided between the Byzantines and Bulgars. The borders extend from Adrianoupolis to Philippoupolis, and in the north as far as the Aimos mountains. The persecutions of Theodora, wife of the emperor Theophilos II, against the Paulicians are exceptionally harsh and thousands of heretics are killed; those who survive are forced to move to Thrace.

9th-10th c.

The diocesan church, of the early inscribed cruciform type, is erected at Pori on the probable site of an Early Christian building. Cities in Thrace and Macedonia are rebuilt by emperor Romanos Lekapinos

971

Emperor Ioannis Tsimiskis and his army cross the passes between Thrace and Bulgaria.

11th-12th c.

Around the mid 11th c. Pechenegs, Uzes, Kumans, Normans start to invade Thrace, while local uprisings are also noted, instigated by contenders for the Byzantine throne.

11th to 13th/14th c.

References to Mt. Papikion in sources as a major monastic centre

1077

Nikiphoros Vryennios proclaimed emperor at Trajanoupolis

11th c.- 12th c.

Unification of the Byzantine Themes of Macedonia and Thrace

1113

Emperor Alexios I winters in the foothills of Mt. Papikion

1122

A new horde of Pechenegs crosses the Danube and sweeps through Thrace and Macedonia. Emperor Ioannis II defeats them once and for all, liberating the empire from this scourge.

1152

Founding of Panayia Kosmosoteira monastery at Vira by sevastokrator Isaakios Komninos. A brilliantly conceived structure, the complex and its frescoes reflect the art and culture of 12th c. Constantinople (only the church survives today).

1204

Installation of the deposed patriarch, Ioannis Kamateros (1199-1206) at Didymoteicho after the fall of Constantinople to the Latins in 1204. Crusaders cede Thrace and NW Asia Minor to Baldwin I, emperor of the Latin Empire.

1204/5

Some Thracian cities form an alliance in order to preserve their authority against the Latins. The Byzantine aristocracy of Thrace collaborates to this end with the Bulgars.

1205, 14 Apr.

The Bulgarian tsar Ioannitzis (Kaloyiannis) defeats the Franks with an army of Bulgarian Vlachs and Kumans in front of Adrianoupolis, taking the Latin emperor Baldwin of Flanders prisoner.

±1206

Bulgarian tsar Ioannitzis (Kaloyiannis) destroys the Thracian cities of Philippoupolis, Trajanoupolis, Mosynoupolis etc. and occupies Didymoteicho.
Henry of Flanders, the Latin emperor at Constantinople, manages to reinstate Frankish rule over a large part of Thrace. In contrast to his predecessor Baldwin, he maintains a conciliatory stance vis a vis the Greeks, whose collaboration with the Bulgars is short-lived.

1223 and after

Savage sacking of Adrianoupolis, Vizye, Didymoteicho, and Gallipolis by the Kumans. After 1222 Ioannis III Doukas Vatatzis assumes the imperial throne at Nicaea. His armies land on Thracian soil. Settlement by Kuman refugees and their induction into the army. Byzantines reconquer Constantinople, followed by the dissolution of the Theme of Macedonia-Thrace. The Tartars invade Thrace.

1230, spring

Theodoros Angelos, emperor of Thessaloniki, annuls the treaty signed with the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asan II against Ioannis Vatatzis and immediately declares war against the Bulgars. His army is annihilated near Klokotnitsa on the Evros.

early 14th c.

Bellicose Catalan mercenaries conduct raids in Thrace. At an historic battle near Peritheorion the Catalan Company is destroyed; Andronikos II Palaiologos had invited their help in protecting Byzantium from the Turkish tribes threatening Asia Minor.

1316/7, winter

Grigorios Palamas, leader of the hesychasts, stops at Papikion on his trip from Constantinople to Mount Athos

1320/21

New invasion of Thrace by Tartars

1321 and after

Andronikos III, grandson of the old, unpleasant emperor, Andronikos II, leaves Constantinople at Easter 1321, thus inciting civil war against his grandfather. He collaborates with Ioannis Kantakouzinos, Syrgiannis, and Theodoros Synadinos and Alexios Apokaukos, who hold important posts in Thrace and Macedonia. Under the threat of war, the emperor surrenders Thrace and some districts in Macedonia to his grandson. Andronikos III waives taxation in Thrace and becomes extremely popular.

1322

Byzantine reconquest of Philippoupolis and other Thracian cities (from Mesembria to Stilvno)

1325, 2 Feb.

Andronikos III crowned co-emperor. Though the civil war between him and his grandfather ends without serious fighting, it nevertheless disrupts agriculture, particularly in Thrace, and paralyses the economy.

1328

New Bulgarian raids in the upper cities of Thrace

1329

Ottomans destroy Trajanopolis

1331(;)

Probable erection of the main tower at Pythion castle, a superb example of Byzantine military architecture and refuge of emperor Ioannis VI Kantakouzinos

1341

Coronation of Ioannis VI Kantakouzinos at Didymoteicho. Beginning of civil war between the regent of Constantinople and Kantakouzinos, the leader of the aristocracy. Raising of the walls of Anastasioupolis by Andronikos III Palaiologos.

1341/2

Sevastokrator Andronikos Asen becomes governor of part of Thrace

1343

Cession of nine Thracian fortresses to the Bulgarians by Archduke Alexios Apokaukos and empress Anna of Savoy in an attempt to stop the Ottoman allies of Kantakouzinos. Omour, the emir of Aidinion, invades Didymoteicho; Ottoman armies savagely pillage the town.

1347

End of civil war with Kantankouzinos victorious over Ioannis V Palaiologos. A period of provisional respite from civil strife within the Byzantine empire lasts until 1352.

1354

Earthquake enables Ottoman conquest of Gallipolis

1354, Nov.

Ioannis Kantakouzinos divides his power among his family. His older son Mathaios Kantakouzinos stages his own campaign in western Thrace, which extends from Didymoteicho to Christopolis, near the new Serbian border

1360/1

Ottomans under Murad I occupy Didymoteicho and push northwards

1363

Ottomans spread into southern Bulgaria and Thrace, conquering Philippoupolis.

1364

Ioannis V Palaiologos seizes Anchialos from the Bulgarians; siege of Mesembria

1366

The Pope proclaims a crusade against the Ottomans. Amadeus VI of Savoy captures Gallipolis.

1368/9;

Adrianoupolis falls to the Ottomans and becomes new capital of the Ottoman state in Europe, replacing Didymoteicho. By now the Ottomans are a permanent presence on the continent.

1373-5

Under orders from the Sultan Murad I, the vezirs Haireddin pasha and Evrenos use Koumoutzina as headquarters for their attacks to the south and especially to the west and capture Maroneia, Peritheorion and Xantheia.

1376

Andronikos IV takes Constantinople with Ottoman and Genoese support and then awards Gallipolis to the Ottomans.

1403

Early in 1403 a treaty is signed by Suleiman, son of Sultan Bayazet I, emperor Ioannis VII, the representatives of Venice and Genoa, the Ioannites and the Serb despot Stephan Lazarevic, by which the Byzantines abolish taxes and recover the Thracian coasts on the Propontis and Black Sea, as well as Palateoria, which can perhaps be identified with Peritheorion.

1456

With the conquest in 1456 of Ainos, the last important post in Thrace is incorporated into the Ottoman empire.

16th-18th c.

Formation of guilds by the Christians, particularly in the 17th c. and afterwards, in the larger cities (Constantinople, Adrianoupolis, Philippoupolis, -- tailors guild, 1685 -- Ainos, Raidestos, Saranda Ekklesias, Stenimachos, Silyvria, and elsewhere). This economic prosperity contributes to the intellectual and educational growth in the period, mainly in the 17th and 18th c. Greek schools founded in Adrianoupolis (as early as the late 15th c.) and Philippoupolis (16th c.).

1821

Revolutionary activity in the areas of Anchialos, Adrianoupolis (Adrianople), Varna, Kessani, Makri, Maroneia, Mesimvria, Samothrace, Sozopolis, Philippoupolis. Uprising in Samothrace ends in disaster, slaughter of the men and enslavement of the women and children. In Sozopolis, the insurrection led by the metropolitan Paisios Prikaios and his brother Dimitrios Varis is extremely bloody. In Adrianoupolis (April) 26 Greek elders and the former patriarch Kyrillos VI are beheaded. Thracians take part in naval operations.

1870

The rivalry between the Greek and Bulgarian churches for about one decade ends in the founding of a separate Bulgarian Church, the Bulgarian Exarchate, which was officially recognized in a firman issued by the Sultan on March 10.

1877-1878

Russo-Turkish War. The Russian army occupies northern Thrace first and marches on to Adrianoupolis.

1878, 3 Mar.

The Treaty of San Stefano calls for the creation of a «Greater Bulgaria». The Pomaks rebel and found an autonomous and independent republic consisting of 21 villages, which survived until the annexation of Eastern Romylia by Bulgaria.

1878, 13 Jul.

The provisions of the Treaty of San Stefano are modified with the Treaty of Berlin, which decrees that the region between the Danube and the Aimos should become autonomous, paying tribute to the Bulgarian governor while remaining under the suzerainty of the Sultan, while the area south of the Aimos (N. Thrace), under the name of Eastern Romylia, would become an autonomous vilayet (department) with a Christian governor and its capital at Philippoupolis, under the political and military authority of the Sultan. Southern Thrace would remain under Ottoman rule.

1885

Bulgaria annexes Eastern Romylia. With the declaration of Bulgaria as an independent kingdom (Oct. 1908) the name Eastern Romylia is abolished.

1886

With the Treaty of Constantinople the Ottoman Empire recognizes the annexation of Eastern Romylia and receives the region of Kirtzali in exchange from Bulgaria.

1908

The Azaria and Papos silk factories open at Soufli, followed by the important plants of the Tzivre family (1920) and P. Hatzisavvas (1925). In 1954 the Tsiakiris factory opened and is still in operation, while a state-run factory has been functioning since 1967.

1912-1913

During the first Balkan War Bulgaria occupies Western Thrace and attacks the Ottoman defence line at Tsataltza. The islands Imbros, Tenedos and Samothrace are occupied by the Greek fleet. Samothrace has been part of Greece ever since.

1913, May

With the signing of the peace treaty in London, the Ottoman Empire cedes to the Balkan coalition (Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia) all of its European territorial possessions to the west of the Ainos-Medeia line (apart from Albania), which were to be distributed among the allies.

1913

Disputes over distribution leads to the Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and the Greco-Serbian forces.

1913. Aug.

With theTreaty of Bucharest Serbia acquires a large part of Macedonia and the Sanjak (province) of Novipazar, Greece receives part of Macedonia as far as the Nestos river, while Western Thrace as far as Soufli remains in Bulgarian hands (Didymoteicho and the area of Orestiada remain under Ottoman rule). The Romanians take advantage of the war and occupy Dovroutsa, while the Ottoman army retakes Adrianople.

1913, Aug.

The Autonomous Republic of Ghioumoultzina is declared, providing for joint participation by Christians and Muslims in its administrative, political and military organization.

1913, Sep.

The Treaty of Constantinople officially recognizes all the provisions of the Treaty of Bucharest

1914-1918

During World War I, as provided by the Ottoman-Bulgarian treaty of Sofia (1915), the Ottoman Empire grants Bulgaria the districts of Didymoteicho and Orestiada, in other words, all of what is today Western Thrace is taken over by Bulgaria, whose borders extend up to 2 km east of the banks of the Evros. The French army occupies Western Thrace in 1918.

1915

Ottoman Empire cedes Didymoteicho and Orestiada to Bulgaria

1918

French Army occupies Western Thrace

1919

After World War I, with the Treaty of Neuilly, Bulgaria retains the area between the Danube and Rhodopi (Northern Thrace). Western Thrace is given to the Allies and administered by them.

1920

With the consent of the Allies, the Greek army occupies Western Thrace (14-15 May) and Eastern Thrace (July). With the Treaty of Sçvres (Aug) Greek rule is established in these regions (roughly up to the Tsataltzao line) and in the islands of Imbros and Tenedos.

1920-1922

Greek administration of Thrace as a single unit under a High Commissioner (Antonis Sachtouris) and Adrianople as its capital. The inhabitants of Thrace vote in the Greek elections of November 1920 and have 52 seats in Parliament (30 Greeks, 20 Muslims, 1 Jew, 1 Armenian).

1920-1922

Asia Minor campaign. The defeat of the Greek army in Asia Minor (Aug. 1922) and the signing of the protocol of Moudania (28 Sept/11 Oct. 1922) also results in the Greek army’s evacuation of Eastern Thrace and its withdrawal west of the Evros.

1923, Jan.

A separate Greek-Turkish agreement signed on 30 Jan. 1923 and valid until 31 March 1924 provides for the obligatory exchange of Christian Orthodox Turkish subjects and Muslim Greek subjects. Exempt from this agreement are the Greeks of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos and the Muslims of Western Thrace, whose religious and educational freedom is guaranteed by the Treaty of Lausanne. In implementing the agreement some 1.220.000 Greeks leave Turkey and 500.000 Muslims depart from Greece.

1923, Jul.

Revision of Treaty of Sevres and signing of the Treaty of Lausanne which cedes Eastern Thrace and Adrianople as well as the Karagatch triangle to Turkey. The River Evros becomes the border between Greece and Turkey. Imbros and Tenedos come under Turkish rule with special administrative provisions.

1924

The first magazines and daily newspapers are published in Thrace. They were usually weeklies, small in size and circulation, like the Proia (1924) and Elefthera Skepsis (1927-1955) in Komotini and the Faros in Alexandroupolis. After World War II many daily papers began to circulate, the longest lived being Chronos (1969) and Patris (1977) in Komotini, Embros (1977) and Foni tis Xanthis (1970) in Xanthi, Eleftheri Thraki (1945) in Alexandroupolis. Several newspapers (around 31) and magazines (ca. 13) have been published in Turkish -- at first using Osmanli script (the religious and anti-Kemal papers until 1957), most of them being weeklies (Milliet, 1931-), Trakianin Sesi (1981-) in Xanthi, Akin and Ileri in Komotini. In 1997 the first paper in the Pomak language (Zagalisa or Love) was printed in Xanthi.

1939 - 1944

During World War II the Bulgarians occupy (1941-1944) Western Thrace (Xanthi and Rhodopi), apart from the Evros where the Germans are in charge.

1955-1974

Wave of emigration, mainly to Germany, Belgium, Australia, USA. Internal migration to the larger cities in Greece continues up to the present. Industrialized farming.

1972

Sugar refinery opens

1974

Founding of Demokritos University of Thrace

1974-1989

Incentives for the development of factories, cottage industries and tourism. Population growth.

1980

SEKAP tobacco factory opens

1987

Thrace and Eastern Macedonia now form one of 13 Regions in Greece (under law 1622/86 and ND 51/87). The Special Programme for Thrace is included in the regional enterprise programme.

1989-1994

Greeks from former Soviet Union settle in Thrace. Plans for completion of the Via Egnatia highway project and the construction of an oil pipeline.